Difference Between Amylose and Amylopectin (With Table)

Starch is essential for both plants and humans. The former stores it in the form of carbohydrates in the stroma or the cytoplasm of leaves whereas the latter consumes it as glycogen. It is a form of polysaccharide which is made up of two molecules- Amylose and Amylopectin.

Amylose vs Amylopectin

The main difference between Amylose and Amylopectin is that Amylose comes under the category of straight-chained polymers. On the other hand, Amylopectin falls under the category of branch chained polymers. The percentage of starch that each of them carries is also different.

“Amylose” is a form of polysaccharide that carries different D-types of glucose units. It stores starch in proportionate amounts and is highly soluble in water. This makes it a digestible form of an enzyme that can be easily converted into carbohydrates. The compound is linked with several types of glycosidic bonds.

“Amylopectin” is a form of polysaccharide constituted with different compounds. It stores starch in a great proportion and is not completely soluble in water. The glycosidic bond also differs in comparison to its counterpart. The units of glucose that Amylopectin contains are D-types in nature.

Comparison Table Between Amylose and Amylopectin

Parameters of comparisonAmyloseAmylopectin
Starch percentageAmylose units of glucose contain 20 percent of starchAmylopectin units of glucose contain 80 percent of starch
Water solubilityAmylose is an enzyme that is highly soluble in waterAmylopectin as a compound is slightly soluble in water
Polymer typeAmylose is a straight-chained type of polymerAmylopectin is a branched-chain type of polymer
Formation of gelIn contact with boiling water, gels are formedEven in contact with boiling water, gels are not formed
Reaction with IodineIodine mixture results in the blue color of AmyloseIodine mixture results in the reddish-brown color of Amylopectin

What is Amylose?

Amylose is significant in the running of various biomedical industries. It is constituted by several monomers connected in a glycosidic type of bond. The major characteristics of this starch storing enzyme were noticed around the early forties. Since then, it is been used vitally by many researchers to study the nature of the straight-chained polymer.

The Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry has termed Amylose as D-Glucopyranan. The molecular mass of Amylose is subject to change, similar to its chemical formula. The density of this polymer is 1.25 grams per milliliter. It looks like white powder and carries a really bad smell or odor.

Amylose is mostly found in Algae. It can also be present in plants under deepwater or geographically situated on lower grounds. The polymer has multiple glucose rings each with glucose deposits on them. The starch composition also varies from polymer to polymer but it generally ranges around twenty percent.

Amylose reacts differently with different liquids. When it is brought in contact with boiling water, it forms a gel on the surface. Whereas if you bring Iodine and mix it with Amylose, then it changes the primary color and turns blue. It also has a high affinity for water molecules.

What is Amylopectin?

Amylopectin can be described as a polymer of a branched pattern. It has glycosidic types of bonds that hold the units of glucose together. Furthermore, it belongs to the D-type of glucose units. It is also constituted of different types of compounds. The chain structure in Amylopectin is linear.

Amylopectin is both crystalline and amorphous in shape and structure. However, this polymer also exists in semi-crystalline and semi-amorphous structures. The crystal part is composed of some part of Amylose, which is present inside it. These are also known as domains of starch granules or sections for storing a variety of scratch types.

The name given by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry to this polymer is 2-D Glucopyranan. The molecular weight and mass of this polymer are also subject to change. This implies that different compositions of compounds will result in separate chemical formulas for the same polymer of Amylopectin.

It carries the majority percentage of starch for conversion into carbohydrates or glycogen. The general number is around seventy to eighty percent. Amylopectin is also moderately soluble in water and converts to a reddish-brown color when mixed with Iodine. The polymer also does not produce any forms of gel in the vicinity of boiling water.

Main Differences Between Amylose and Amylopectin

  1. Amylose is a type of starch storing polymer that is highly soluble in water whereas Amylopectin is a type of polymer that is slightly soluble in water.
  2. Amylose is straight-linked whereas Amylopectin is branch linked in nature.
  3. Amylose turns blue when mixed with Iodine whereas Amylopectin turns reddish brown when mixed with Iodine.
  4. Amylose produces gel-like formation in the vicinity of boiling water while Amylopectin does not produce any gel-like formation.
  5. Amylose contains 20-30 percent of starch whereas Amylopectin contains 70-80 percent of starch.

Conclusion

Both Amylose and Amylopectin are essential polymers for bio-medical research and sustaining industries. The relative strength of the bond and the compact structure result in efficient food storage for plants. Therefore, these compounds are categorized as a form of food reserve polymer. However, they both carry a different percentage of starch inside their units.

Amylose and Amylopectin serve various functions and utilities. The former is implemented for stabilizing emulsion. Also operated in culinary-related activities. The latter is implemented for storing energy in plants. These polymers are also significant in providing a coating texture to french fries. This aids in the absorption of oil and fatty acids.

Whenever plants convert their starch into carbohydrates, the conversion requires energy which facilities the breakdown. Both Amylose and Amylopectin provide this by storing starch and captivating energy in their granules. Therefore, these are quite vital polymers for assisting plants in their nutrition process.

The starch present in these polymers also helps in wrapping the crust of bread and pizza in the microwave. Hence providing versatile functions and utilities. Moreover, these polymers are also important for making food wrappers.

References

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000862150090778X
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000862150090778X