Difference Between Adenine and Adenosine (With Table)

Often you will find that the term Adenine and Adenosine are used interchangeably. Yet, they do differ concerning their chemical structure and other biochemicals they interact with. So, why not? You drive to this blog to compare and elucidate the difference between both terms. 

Adenine vs Adenosine

The main difference between Adenine and Adenosine is that Adenine is a nucleobase chemical reactant. On the other hand, Adenosine is a nucleoside chemical reactant.

Adenine may be defined as a purine nucleobase containing an amine group linked to the carbon at position 6. Nucleosides, adenosine, and deoxyadenosine are all primarily made up of adenine. Several additional adenine structures have been identified, yet, most of which are compounds that may be quickly interconverted, and are considered equivalents.

Human cells, on the other hand, contain the molecule adenosine. The three most prevalent adenosine compounds are adenosine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Adenosine is a structural component made up of important nucleic acids that can be found in all living organisms. It’s also effective as a therapy for a variety of ailments.

Comparison Table Between Adenine and Adenosine 

Parameters of ComparisonAdenineAdenosine
DefinitionThe nucleobase is the building block of DNA. The nucleobase adenine is a purine nucleobase.Adenosine, on the other hand, is a naturally occurring nucleoside found in a variety of forms in all of the body’s cells.
StructureAdenine is available in a number of tautomer forms.Adenosine, on the other hand, is made up of two sugar molecules: adenine and ribose.
UsesAdenine is frequently necessary for nucleic acid synthesis.Adenosine, on the other hand, is a medication that is used to treat irregular heartbeats. It can also be used as thallium and other element supplements.
Molecular WeightThe molecular mass of Adenine is135.13 g/mol.Adenosine, on the other hand, has a molecular mass of 267.24 g/mol
Formulas for ChemicalsAdenine’s chemical formula is C5H5N5.Adenosine, on the other hand, has the chemical formula C10H13N5O4.

What is Adenine? 

Adenine is a basic functional molecule that, when conjugated with other functional groups, produces complex compounds like adenosine and its phosphate derivatives. These complex compounds are involved in a variety of cellular functions. Both of these substances are required for an organism’s physiological functions to work properly.

Adenine is also one of the two purine bases used to form nucleotides in nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) in DNA to help keep nucleic acid structures stable. In RNA, adenine binds to uracil (U). The other three nucleobases that make up the structure of nucleic acid are guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Its chemical formula is C5H5N5 and its molar mass is 135.13 g/mol.

What is Adenosine?

Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that can be found in a variety of forms in all of the body’s cells. It is used to treat cardiac rhythms that are unusually fast. In Adenosine, the presence of an extra amino group at the 6th carbon is visible. It is the key component of a variety of coenzymes. It forms a nucleoside, adenosine by conjugating and bonding with a pentose, sugar molecule.

A nucleoside is a chemical that has a nucleobase that is glycosidically linked to a sugar molecule. Ribose is the sugar moiety in adenosine. C10H13N5O4 is its chemical formula. This substance is a purine nucleoside, which means it has an adenine molecule connected to a ribose sugar molecule in its structure. It’s also a prescription medicine that’s used to detect blockages in the heart’s arteries. 

Adenosine, AMP, and ATP are also used as supplements for sports performance, cold sores, and a variety of other ailments, but there is no scientific proof to back up these claims. An injectable version of adenosine is a prescription medicine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a condition characterized by a rapid heart rate. It’s also a prescription medicine that’s used to detect blockages in the heart’s arteries.

Main Differences Between Adenine and Adenosine 

  1. Adenine is a basic functional molecule that, when conjugated with other functional groups, produces complex compounds like adenosine and its phosphate derivatives. While Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that can be easily found in a variety of forms in all of the body’s cells.
  2. Adenine mainly comes in a variety of tautomer forms. While Adenosine is made up of two sugar molecules named: adenine and ribose.
  3. The molecular mass of adenine is 135.13 g/mol. Adenosine, on the other hand, has a molecular mass of 267.24 g/mol.
  4. Adenine is often required for the formation of nucleic acid. While Adenosine is a drug that is used for treating irregular heartbeats. Also, it can be used as a supplement to thallium and other elements.
  5. Adenine’s chemical formula is C5H5N5. Adenosine, on the other hand, has the molecular formula C10H13N5O4.

Conclusion

Finally, in summing up you can understand that the chemical compounds are named after their structural components. Yet, it can be seen that the chemicals with similar components are found in adenine and adenosine, which is quite confusing in reality. however, these chemicals do have different structures and functions.

Like Adenine is a purine derivative that is mainly composed of a five-membered imidazole ring and is fused with a six-membered pyrimidine ring. While Adenosine is a purine nucleoside, a component that contains a nucleobase that is attached to a sugar molecule through a glycosidic bond.

Furthermore, adenine forms two primary hydrogen bonds with thymine and uracil molecules, assisting in the stabilization of the nucleic acid structure. Adenosine, on the other hand, regulates cell cycle progression and the transit of molecules through the blood-brain barrier, along with its receptors. The phosphate form of adenosine is important in many metabolic pathways that provide energy in any form.

References

  1. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jp903126f
  2. https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2013/cp/c3cp51057c
  3. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1161/01.res.29.4.375