Difference Between ACE-Inhibitor and Beta-Blocker (With Table)

The full form of ACE inhibitor is an Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. They are used primarily to treat high blood pressure by lowering the pressure acting on the blood vessels. Examples of Ace-Inhibitors are Fosinopril, Perindopril, etc.

Beta-blockers are the medication used to reduce blood pressure by blocking the effects of adrenaline. Examples of beta-blockers are Nadolol, Propranolol, etc.

ACE-Inhibitor vs Beta-Blocker

The main difference between ACE-Inhibitor and Beta-blocker is that there is an enzyme called angiotensin II, It is produced in our body by the liver. This enzyme makes blood vessels contract that leads to high blood pressure. So, ACE Inhibitor is used to reduce high blood pressure, and Beta Blockers are not usually recommended primarily. If any other medicines don’t work then Beta-blockers are recommended.

ACE inhibitors are medicines that treat heart diseases. These reduce the burden on the heart by lowering blood pressure. People who suffer from heart diseases consume these medicines. They lower the risk of heart attacks. They also treat diabetes and kidney problems. These can help the kidney from getting worse. These medicines shouldn’t be taken by pregnant ladies.

Beta-Blockers are also known as beta-adrenergic blocking agents. These medicines help the heart to beat slower to reduce the pressure on it due to which blood pressure reduces. Beta-Blockers also help the veins and arteries to widen up for improving blood movement. Doctors advise beta-blockers based on the patient’s health condition. Some beta-blockers only affect the heat but some of them show an effect on both the heart and blood vessels.

Comparison Table Between ACE-Inhibitor and Beta-Blocker

Parameters Of ComparisonACE-InhibitorBeta-Blocker
DefinitionMedicine that is used to reduce blood pressureMedicine that is used to reduce blood pressure by blocking the effects of hormones
Derived fromSnake venomPronethalol and Propranolol
UsesControl of blood pressure, Heart failure, and diabetes-kidney related problemsHeart failure, angina, Migraine, and a certain amount of tremors
Side effectsDry cough, Headache, Loss of taste, Hyperkalemia, and FatigueFatigue and Dizziness, Poor Circulation if blood, Sexual dysfunction, and Weight Gain
People who should not consume these medicinesPregnant women, Kidney Failure, and allergiesAsthma patients, sick sinus syndrome, and bradycardia

What is ACE-Inhibitor?

. Hypertension can be treated by using ACE Inhibitors. Hypertension is caused by the contraction of muscles around the arteries and veins. The contraction is caused due to an enzyme produced by the liver called angiotensin II. This enzyme helps in the good circulation of blood.

Angiotensinogen is a protein produced by the liver. It produces angiotensin I through which Angiotensin II is formed by ACE. Inhibitors slow down the activity of the Angiotensin-converting enzyme. ACE Inhibitor works to decrease angiotensin II which results in the dilation of blood vessels.

Patients who undergone surgery after heart attacks consume ACE Inhibitors for better health conditions. Some Observations stated that patients who consumed ACE Inhibitors after Heart surgery had more life span than those who didn’t consume the medicines.

ACE Inhibitors are not for everyone. Pregnant people should not consume ACE Inhibitors because it may cause some complications also If people who have renal artery stenosis consume these medicines they may have kidney failure.

The most common side effects of ACE Inhibitors are Cough, Dizziness, Headache, Drowsiness, Weakness, Rashes, Abnormal taste, Increased uric acid levels, and Sun sensitivity. The most serious but rare side effects of ace inhibitors are Kidney failure, Allergic reactions, Pancreatitis, Decrease in white blood cells, and Angioedema ( Swelling of tissues )

Patients who consume ACE Inhibitors should not use food rich in potassium unless their doctors approve. As ACE Inhibitors increase the potassium levels in the blood, consuming food items that are rich in potassium may cause health hazards.

What is Beta-Blocker?

Other names for Beta-blockers are beta-adrenergic blocking agents, beta-antagonists, and beta-adrenergic antagonists. They reduce pressure on the Heart and blood vessels and also treat migraine, anxiety, and tremors.

Adrenaline and noradrenaline are hormones that cause pressure on muscles. Higher release of adrenaline and noradrenaline causes an increase in heart beat rate and high blood pressure.

Beta-blockers halt the release of hormones to reduce the pressure acting on muscles around the heart. It takes off the pressure from the brain, blood vessels, and other parts of the body. Apart from protecting the heart beta-blockers protect bones from over-thinning by preventing the kidneys from excreting calcium into the urine.

All Beta-blockers are not the same. They are classified as nonselective Beta-blockers, Cardioselective Beta-blockers, Third-generation Beta-blockers. These are the main types.

The most common side effects of Beta-blockers are fatigue, cold hands, headache, weight gain,  diarrhea, and constipation. The rare side effects of Beta-blockers are Shortness of breath, trouble sleeping, decreased libido, and depression. Large dose consumption of beta-blockers leads to Changes in vision, confusion, and irregular heartbeat.

Other medications may increase or decrease the effect of beta-blockers. Beta-Blockers can interact with these medications: ACE Inhibitors, alpha-blockers, anesthetics, antidepressants, calcium channel blockers, inotropic agents, etc.

Beta-blockers should not be used by people with severe heart failure, diabetes, and Raynaud’s disease. People suffering from asthma should use cardioselective beta-blockers also known as beta -1 selective. Sudden stop of using beta-blockers could cause health complications such as angina (chest pain), raised blood pressure, and heart palpitations.

Main Differences Between ACE-Inhibitor and Beta Blocker

  1. ACE Inhibitor only deal with Heart but Beta Blockers deal with Heart and Blood vessels.
  2. ACE Inhibitor prevents the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme but Beta blocker prevents the action of adraline.
  3. ACE Inhibitors are the primary treatment for high blood pressure conditions but Beta blockers are used when no other medication cures the High Blood Pressure condition.
  4. The side effects of ACE Inhibitor are dry cough and Hyperkalemia but side effects of beta blockers are Weight gain ang maigraine.
  5. ACE Inhibitors shoudn’t be consumed by people with allergies and kidney failures, Beta blockers shoudn’t be consumed by people suffering with asthama and sick sinus syndrome.

Conclusion

ACE Inhibitors and Beta-blockers are used for lowering high blood pressure but with minor differences like the working of the medicine. They prevent the action of different hormones released in the body like angiotensin II  and adrenaline which relaxes the heart and helps in the circulation of blood.

They come with different side effects like the abnormal taste, weakness, and rashes for ACE Inhibitors and constipation, diarrhea, and headache. Overdose may lead to severe health problems.

Both ACE Inhibitors and Beta Blockers should not be consumed by pregnant women. Unlike ACE Inhibitors Beta-blockers also protects bones from thinning. Both ACE Inhibitors and Beta Blockers Treat issues related to kidneys. Consuming these medicines as prescribed by the doctors will help from causing health hazards.

References

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002870320303458
  2. https://ssmj.ru/en/2010/1/061